Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS

Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.

The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:

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      130 001
      Separation and detection of apricot leaf triterpenes by high-performance thin-layer chromatography combined with direct bioautography and mass spectrometry
      Ágnes M. MÓRICZ*, P. G. OTT (*Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, 1022 Budapest, Hungary; moricz.agnes@agrar.mta.hu)

      J Chromatogr A, 1675, 463167 (2022). Samples were ethanol extracts (and their flash chromatography fractions) of Prunus armeniaca leaves (Rosaceae), as well as betulinic, linolenic, maslinic (= crataegolic), oleanolic, ursolic acids and pygenic acids A (= corosolic acid) and B b as standards. When needed, to improve separation of triterpenoids, reversible pre-chromatographic derivatization was performed in situ by applying 10 µL iodine solution (2 % in chloroform) either before development on the deposit band, or for 2D-HPTLC after a first separation up to 60 mm and before a second orthogonal separation. Layers were covered 10 min with glass sheet after iodine application, and then dried 1 min under cold air stream. HPTLC on silica gel with chloroform – ethyl acetate – methanol 20:3:2, 85:9:6, or 15:2:3), followed by 5-10 min drying under cold air stream (eliminating iodine completely). Post-chromatographic derivatization by immersion (time 2 s, speed 3 cm/s) into vanillin – sulfuric acid (40 mg and 200µL, respectively, in 10 mL ethanol), followed by heating 5 min at 110 °C. Antibacterial effect-directed analysis was performed by immersion (time 8 s) into Bacillus subtilis suspension, followed by 2 h incubation at 37 °C, immersion in MTT solution and 30 min incubation at 37 °C. Active bands were eluted from layer with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a single quadrupole mass spectrometer to record full scan mass spectra (m/z 200–1200 in both modes) using electrospray ionization (interface temperature 350°C, heat block temperature 400°C, desolvation line temperature 250°C, detector voltage 4.5kV). Five triterpenoids were identified: betulinic, corosolic, maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids, acid, as well as two fatty acids: linolenic and palmitic acid.

      Classification: 4e, 11a, 15a, 32e
      130 002
      An improved method for a fast screening of α-glucosidase inhibitors in cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill.) applying effect-directed analysis via high-performance thin-layer chromatography-bioassay-mass spectrometry
      O. GALARCE-BUSTOS, J. PAVÓN-PÉREZ, K. HENRÍQUEZ-AEDO, M. ARANDA*
      (*Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile; maranda@udec.cl, maranda@gmx.net)

      J Chromatogr A, 1608, 460415 (2019). Samples were acetonitrile extracts of Annona cherimola fruit peel, pulp and seeds (Annonaceae), as well as caffeic acid as standards. HPTLC on silica gel with chloroform – ethyl acetate – propanol 21:2:2 for peel extracts, with chloroform – methanol 9:1 for seed extracts. Derivatization by spraying Dragendorff’s reagent for alkaloids, secondary amines and non-nitrogenous oxygenated compounds.  Effect-directed assay was performed for inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Before sample application, plates were developed with enzyme substrate (2-naphthyl-α-D-glucopyranoside 0.1 % in methanol) and dried 20 min at 60 °C. Then, samples were applied and separated, and mobile phase was removed by heating 10 min at 60 °C. The chromatogram was sprayed with 4 mL enzyme solution (5 unit/mL in 100 mM phosphate buffer,  pH 7.4), liquid excess was removed under lukewarm air stream, the plate was incubated 10 min at 37 °C in a moisture box, followed by spraying chromogenic reagent Fast Blue salt B 0.1 % in water, giving after 2 min white inhibition bands visible on purple background under white light. Plate image was documented under illumination (reflectance mode) with white light. The bands of 3 inhibiting compounds were analyzed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. 1) Full scan mass spectra (m/z 50−1000) in the positive ionization mode were recorded using electrospray ionization (ESI, spray voltage 3 kV, desolvation line temperature 250 °C, block temperature 400 °C) for compounds directly eluted with methanol – acetonitrile through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump. 2) Compounds were also isolated (either eluted directly from the plate into a vial through the same interface, or scraped from the plate and extracted with methanol – chloroform into a vial), dried, and submitted to HPLC-DAD-MS/MS; MS-MS spectra were recorded in the same conditions, using argon as collision gas and collision cell voltages from -20 and -40 V. Inhibitors were identified as phenolamides (phenylethyl cinnamides): moupinamide (hRF 66 in peels, 56 in seeds), N-trans-feruloyl phenethylamine (hRF 76 in peels), N-trans-p-coumaroyl tyramine (hRF 44 in seeds).

      Classification: 4d, 4e, 7, 17c, 32e
      130 009
      Development of a high performance thin layer chromatography method for the rapid qualification and quantification of phenolic compounds and abscisic acid in honeys
      N. STANEK, P. KAFARSKI, Izabela JASICKA-MISIAK* (*Faculty of Chemistry, Opole University, Opole, Poland; izajm@uni.opole.pl)

      J Chromatogr A, 1598, 209-215 (2019). Samples were methanolic extracts of honeys from Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae) or from Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae / Malvaceae), as well as standards: abscisic acid (sesquiterpenoid), caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid (phenolic acids), chrysin (flavone), myricetin, quercetin (flavonols), naringenin (flavanone). HPTLC on silica gel with chloroform – ethyl acetate – formic acid 5:4:1. Visualization under UV 254 nm and 366 nm, before and after derivatization by spraying with aluminium chloride (1 % in methanol), which rendered flavone bands bright yellow. Quantitative absorbance measuremet by densitometry at 366 nm. Linearity was in the range of 12,5–200 µg/mL for most standards (25–400 µg/mL for chrysin). Main differences observed in samples: 1) abscisic acid (hRF 56) and chrysin (hRF 82) were present only in Tilia honey samples, quercetin (hRF 55) only in Robinia honey; 2) ferulic acid (hRF 60) was the most prominent blue band in Tilia honey samples (1.35–18.73 g/kg of honey), and less intense in Robinia honey (0–1.24 g/kg of honey). Multivariate analysis was performed in two different ways with principal component analysis.

      Classification: 7, 8a, 15a, 32e
      129 055
      Elicitation of antioxidant metabolites in Musa species in vitro shoot culture using sugar, temperature and jasmonic acid
      I.O. AYOOLA-ORESANYA, B. GUEYE, M.A. SONIBARE, M.T. ABBERTON, Gertrud E. MORLOCK* (*Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and TransMIT Center of Effect-Directed Analysis, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 146 (2), 225–236 (2021). Samples were hydro-ethanolic extracts of Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana (Musaceae) plantlets, obtained from in vitro meristem-derived gel cultures with saccharose, temperature or jasmonic acid as elicitors of production of secondary metabolites. HPTLC on silica gel  (RP18W phase for genotoxicity assay) with ethyl acetate – toluene – formic acid – water 34:5:7:5. Evaluation under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Effect-directed assays (EDA) were performed (by immersion or by automated piezoelectrical spraying) for free radical (DPPH•) scavengers, and, after neutralization, for enzymatic inhibitors (acetyl-cholinesterase, α-glucosidase) and for genotoxicity (SOS response – UMU-C test). For comparison, positive control standards were applied but not developed, before the assays (gallic acid, physostigmine, acarbose, nitroquinoline-1-oxide, respectively). After the first assay, absorbance densitometry was performed through inverse scanning at 546 nm using mercury lamp (fluorescence mode without optical filter). Antioxidant activity was found the highest when cultures were maintained at 20 °C (vs. 15 and 26 °C) and supplemented with saccharose (40-50 g/L) or jasmonic acid (200 µM).

      Classification: 4e, 32e
      129 066
      Effect-directed profiling of 17 different fortified plant extracts by high-performance thin-layer chromatography combined with six planar assays and high-resolution mass spectrometry
      Gertrud E. MORLOCK*, J. HEIL, V. BARDOT, L. LENOIR, C. COTTE, M. DUBOURDEAUX (*Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and TransMIT Center of Effect-Directed Analysis, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      Molecules, 26 (5), 1468 (2021). Summary: Samples were fortified extracts produced with iPowder technology (involving spray-drying of a rich first extract on a new batch of the same plant) from following plants: Camellia sinensis final bud and two leaves (Theaceae), Cynara scolumus leaves and Echinacea purpurea roots (Asteraceae), Eleutherococcus senticosus roots (Araliaceae), Equisetum arvense aerial part (Equisetaceae), Eschscholzia californica aerial parts (Papaveraceae), Humulus lupulus cones (Cannabaceae), Ilex paraguariensis leaves (Aquifoliaceae), Melissa officinalis aerial parts and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (Lamiaceae), Passiflora incarnata aerial part (Passifloraceae), Raphanus sativus var. niger roots (Brassicaceae), Ribes nigrum leaves (Grossulariaceae), Spiraea ulmaria floral tops (Rosaceae), Valeriana officinalis roots (Caprifoliaceae), Vitis vinifera leaves or pomace (Vitaceae). HPTLC on silica gel with 1) ethyl acetate – toluene – formic acid – water 16:4:3:2,  or 2) cyclohexane – ethyl acetate – formic acid 30:19:1. Detection under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Extract stability after 2 years was also checked through HPTLC. Neutralization by spraying phosphate-citrate buffer, and drying in cold air stream. Effect-directed analysis using automated piezoelectrical spraying: A) for enzymatic inhibition (acetyl-cholinesterase, glucosidase, glucuronidase, tyrosinase); B) for activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Active bands of multipotent compounds were eluted from HPTLC layers with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 100−1000) in the positive and negative ionization modes were recorded using heated electrospray ionization (HESI, spray voltage 3.5 kV, capillary temperature 270 °C). By comparison to literature, the following compounds were assigned: caffeine, catechins, carnosol, chlorogenic acid, cynaratriol, dicaffeoylquinic acid, feruloyl quinic acid, gallic acid, linoleic and linolenic acids, oleanic or ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid.

      Classification: 4e, 7, 8a, 8b, 11a, 15a, 22, 32e
      129 068
      Thai mango and pineapple puree and juice analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with effect-directed assays
      Gertrud E. MORLOCK*, N. WUTTHINITHISANAND, D. RAUHUT
      (*Institute of Nutritional Science, and Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Biosystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      Molecules, 26 (24), 7683 (2021). Samples were ultrasound-assisted extracts of fruit puree and juice (pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or ascorbic acid) of Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae) and Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae). HPTLC on silica gel with toluene – ethyl acetate – methanol – formic acid 120:90:35:3. Detection under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm, before and after  derivatization by immersion (2 s, 3 cm/s) into anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent and  diphenylamine aniline reagent, followed by heating at 110 °C for 5 min. Effect-directed analysis using automated immersion: A) for free radical (DPPH•) scavengers; B) for enzymatic inhibition (acetyl-cholinesterase, tyrosinase); C) for activity against Gram-negative (Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay) or Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis bioassay). Active compounds were far more present in puree than in juice extracts, and differences were also seen between cultivars. Ascorbic acid (hRF 37), used as additive for the mango puree, was active as antioxidant and as transiently disruptive for A. fischeri metabolism and bioluminescence.

      Classification: 27, 32e, 35b
      129 065
      Effect-directed analysis of bioactive compounds in Cannabis sativa L. by high-performance thin-layer chromatography
      G. CORNI, V. BRIGHENTI, F. PELLATI, Gertrud E. MORLOCK*
      (*Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and TransMIT Center of Effect-Directed Analysis, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      J Chromatogr A, 1629, 461511 (2020). HPTLC of methanolic extracts of female inflorescences from ten hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa, Cannabaceae) on silica gel with toluene – ethyl acetate 1:1 or (for yeast assays) on RP-18W with toluene – ethyl acetate 7:3. When intended for MS experiments, layers were previously washed twice with methanol – formic acid 10:1, once with acetonitrile – methanol 2:1 and air-dried. Chromatograms were documented under white light, UV 254 nm and for fluorescence detection (FLD) at 366 nm. Afterwards, 6 derivatization assays were performed with the following reagents, either without heating: primuline; or requiring heating 5 min at 120 °C: p-aminobenzoic acid; anisaldehyde sulfuric acid; diphenylamine aniline phosphoric acid; ninhydrin; vanillin sulfuric acid. Besides, 8 effect-directed assays (EDA) were performed for free radical (DPPH•) scavengers, for antimicrobial compounds (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis assay, Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay), for phytoestrogens (planar yeast estrogen assay), for inhibitors of the following enzymes: acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), α- and β-glucosidase, tyrosinase. AChE assay was performed by immersion (speed 3.5 cm/s, time 5 s) into AChE solution (666 units in TRIS buffer 0.05 M, with bovine serum albumin 0.1 %, pH 7.8), incubation 25 min at 37 °C, spraying with substrate solution, and heating 2 min at 50 °C. Two AChE substrate solutions were used: A) α-naphthyl acetate 0.1 % and chromogenic reagent Fast Blue salt B 0.18 % in ethanol – water 1:2, giving white inhibition bands visible on purple background under white light; B) with 3-indoxyl-3-acetate, giving black inhibition bands on blue background under UV 254 nm, which was useful to prevent false negatives when Fast Blue Salt B formed colored bands with analytes. Two bands of multipotent compounds were eluted from normal-phase layer with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 50−750) in the positive and negative ionization modes were recorded using heated electrospray ionization (HESI, spray voltage 3.5 kV, capillary temperature 270 °C). By comparison to literature and standards, they were identified as cannabidivarinic acid (hRF 55) and cannabidiolic acid (hRF 60-70).

      Classification: 4e, 7, 15a, 32e
      129 064
      Effect-directed profiling and identification of bioactive metabolites from field, in vitro-grown and acclimatized Musa spp. accessions using high-performance thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry
      I.O. AYOOLA-ORESANYA, M.A. SONIBAREA, B. GUEYEB, R. PALIWALB, M.T. ABBERTON, Gertrud E. MORLOCK* (*Institute of Nutritional Science, and Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Biosystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      J Chromatogr A, 1616, 460774 (2020). Methanolic extracts of leaves of Musa acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. sapientum (Musaceae), either from fields or from in vitro cultures or from the plantlets derived from in vitro culture and acclimatized in isolated warm room, were separated on HPTLC silica gel layers with toluene – ethyl acetate – methanol 6:3:1 or ethyl acetate – toluene – formic acid – water 34:5:7:5. When intended for MS experiments, layers were previously washed twice with methanol – formic acid 10:1, once with acetonitrile – methanol 2:1 and air-dried. Evaluation under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Derivatization by immersion (2s, 2cm/s) into natural product reagent preceded by heating at 110 °C for 5 min, or into anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent, diphenylamine aniline reagent, ninhydrin reagent, followed by the same heating procedure. Besides, plates were neutralized by cold air stream followed with phosphate buffer (8 %, pH 7.5) piezoelectrically sprayed on the plates and automated plate drying. Thereafter, 9 effect-directed assays (EDA) were performed for free radical (DPPH•) scavengers, for enzymatic inhibitors (α-amylase, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase, α- and β-glucosidase), for antimicrobial compounds (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis assay, Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay), and for mutagenic compounds (SOS response – UMU-C test using Salmonella typhimurium suspension and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide as positive control). The bands of 4 active compounds were eluted with methanol through a TLC-MS interface pump into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 50−800) in the positive and negative ionization modes were recorded using electrospray ionization (ESI, spray voltage 3.3kV, capillary temperature 320°C, collision energy 35 eV). By comparison to a standard, one band present in all samples was identified as linolenic acid. For the other bands, only present in in vitro grown accessions, only raw molecular formulas and phytochemical classes were assigned (a pyrrolidine alkaloid, an amino-acid, a phenolic derivative).

      Classification: 4e, 7, 11a, 18a, 22, 32e