Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS
Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.
The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:
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J Chromatogr A 1666, 462863 (2022). Theoretical discussion on the factors determining the RF value of a given substance in a chromatographic system: A) the stationary phase (SP); B) the mobile phase (MP), the composition of which can be different from the solvent mixture prepared because of evaporation, saturation and liquid or gas adsorption effects over migration time; C) the difference of the free energies for the analyte transfer from SP to MP; D) external parameters like temperature and humidity. The universal HPTLC mixture (UHM) is a mixture of reference compounds that can be used for the system suitability test (SST) for the full RF range in all HPTLC experiments. Its composition is: thioxanthen-9-one (0.001 %), guanosine (0.05 %), phthalimide (0.2 %), 9-hydroxyfluorene, octrizole, paracetamol, sulisobenzone and thymidine (each 0.1 %), in methanol. The purpose was to study the potential of UHM to replace SST (described with specific markers in European Pharmacopoeia monographs) and to assess the quality of HPTLC results. TLC and HPTLC silica gel on different support (aluminium, glass) or with different granulometries and binders (classic, Durasil, Adamant), of the UHM, an acetonitrile extract of Abelmoschus manihot flowers (Malvaceae), a methanol extract of Sambucus canadensis flowers (Adoxaceae), and essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, of Mentha × piperita (Lamiaceae) and of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), as well as the following specific markers (standards): borneol, bornyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate (terpenoids), isoeugenol, isoeugenol acetate, chlorogenic acid (phenylpropanoids), gossypin (flavone), gossypetin-glucuronide, hyperoside (flavonol heterosides). Development (after 20 min plate conditioning with a saturated MgCl2 solution) with one of the following mobile phases: (MP1) toluene – ethyl acetate 19:1, especially for essential oils; (MP2) ethyl acetate – butanone – formic acid – water 5:3:1:1, especially for S. canadensis; (MP3) ethyl acetate – acetic acid – formic acid – water 100:11:11:26, especially for A. manihot. Documentation in UV 254 nm and 350 nm, and with white light (reflection + transmission), before and after derivatization. RF values were determined by scanning densitometry at 254 nm in absorption mode (for octrizole, at 366 nm in fluorescence mode with mercury lamp and optical filter K400 nm). For each HPTLC condition, intra-laboratory precision assay of UHM separation was performed (at least 5 analyses) with average RF values and 95 % prediction intervals, and calculating RF differences between pairs of UHM constituents and 95 % confidence intervals, which were max. +/-0.012 of the RF values for all UHM and markers. The sensitivity of UHM, and thus its usefulness as generic SST was demonstrated by repeating the HPTLC experiments with modifying by 10 % the quantity of one of the solvent each time. There were always significant changes in RF values of UHM components and/or in RF differences between pairs of UHM bands; it was often but no always the case with the official specific markers. UHM underwent also significant changes (although less than A. manihot extract) when several silica gel phases were compared under the same HPTLC conditions. This property is crucial to verify the right stationary phase before doing any RF correlations, and could make UHM a universal tool to identify discrepancies between different analyses. Finally, the use of UHM for a computer-supported evaluation of HPTLC results was discussed, either for zone identification and RF corrections (within confidence intervals), or for correlations of entire fingerprints as first step to implement machine learning algorithms.
J Chromatogr A 1638, 461830 (2021). The purpose was to find the first universal HPTLC mixture (UHM), a mixture of reference compounds that could be used for the system suitability test (SST) for the full RF range in all HPTLC experiments.
(Part 1) UHM composition: First, 56 organic molecules, detectable without derivatization, were tested on HPTLC silica gel with 20 different mobile phases (MP) belonging to different Snyder’s selectivity groups and with several polarity indices. Visualization under UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Densitometry scanning at 254 nm in absorption mode, and at 366 nm in a fluorescence mode (mercury lamp 366 nm, with wavelength filter <400 nm). For selected bands, spectra were recorded in absorbance-reflectance mode (wavelength range 190 – 450 nm, deuterium and tungsten lamp). This procedure allowed 8 molecules to be selected for their better spot resolution and for their specific RF values (at least 3 different values distributed throughout the full RF range for each MP). The final composition of UHM was: thioxanthen-9-one (0.001 %), guanosine (0.05 %), phthalimide (0.2 %), 9-hydroxyfluorene, octrizole, paracetamol, sulisobenzone and thymidine (each 0.1 %), in methanol.
(Part 2) UHM validation: Afterwards, UHM was submitted again to a panel of HPTLC assays with always two MP: (A) toluene – methanol – diethylamine 8:1:1; (B) ethyl acetate – formic acid – water 15:1:1; and for each MP, the means, standard deviation and 95 % confidence intervals of the RF values were calculated. (a) UHM was validated for intermediate intra-laboratory precision, as well as for inter-laboratory reproducibility, with ΔRF 0.045. (b) The capacity of UHM to detect small variations was demonstrated by significant changes in at least some RF values, when separation was deliberately performed at different levels of relative humidity (0 %, 33 %, 75 %, 100 %), or with smaller humidity variations (7 % compared to 0–5 %, and 49 % compared to 33 %), or when performing vs. omitting the 10min chamber pre-saturation, or when modifying the MP (+/-10% of one solvent at each time). These response characteristics (the opposite of robustness) made UHM a powerful tool for SST. (c) Finally, UHM stability was studied with UHM aliquots under several storage conditions (-78 °C, -20 °C, 4 °C, room temperature, 45 °C; or 40 °C with 75 % relative humidity) and durations (2 weeks or 2 months). The densitometric peak profiles at 254 nm were compared to those of the fresh compounds, qualitatively (RF value, UV spectrum) and quantitatively (peak area). UHM was stable at room temperature or below, for 2 months (at higher temperature, guanosine, phthalimide and paracetamol degraded).
Plant Med 88(2), 163-178 (2022). TLC was used to verify the purity of acetoxychavicol acetate (a phenylpropanoid) isolated through column chromatography from a hexane extract of Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae). TLC on silica gel with n-hexane – ethyl acetate 17:3, evaluation under UV 254 nm.
J. Ethnopharmacol. 289, 115035 (2022). HPTLC of stigmasterol and some polyphenolic compounds in the rhizome of Cyperus tegetum on silica gel with chloroform - ethyl acetate - formic acid 5:4:1 and toluene - methanol 9:1. Detection by spraying with p-anisaldehyde reagent in a cold solution of methanol - glacial acetic acid - phuric acid 17:2:1, followed by heating at 100 - 105 °C for 5-10 min.
Chinese Medicine 16, 98 (2021). Preparative TLC on silica gel for the isolation of bisbakuchiol N (a terpenophenolic) from a cyclohexane extract of Psoralea corylifolia (= Cullen corylifolia, Fabaceae) mature fruits, after fractionation on silica gel, cyclodextrane and reverse-phase columns. Mobile phase was petroleum ether – chloroform 10:1. Derivatization with sulfuric acid (10 % in ethanol – water, 19:1).
Food Chem. 133992 (2023). HPTLC of kiwi peel extracts on silica gel with ethyl acetate - formic acid - acetic acid - water 100:11:11:26. Detection of phenolics and tanning agents by heating the plate at 100 °C for 2 min, followed by dipping into fast blue B (140 mg fast blue salt B in a mixture of 140 mL methanol, 10 mL water, and 50 mL dichloromethane). Detection of flavanols, phenols and further natural compounds by dipping into a NPA solution (1 g 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate in 200 mL of ethyl acetate), followed by drying, detection under UV light at 366 nm, followed by dipping into the anisaldehyde reagent (0.5 mL anisaldehyde, 10 mL acetic acid, 85 mL methanol, and 10 mL sulphuric acid), followed by heating at 100 °C for 5 min. Antioxidants were detected by dipping into a DPPH solution (0.4 g 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in 200 mL of methanol), followed by incubation in dark for 30 min.
Food Chem. 133263 (2022). HPTLC of 27 hand-filtered coffee brews of differently roasted coffee beans and 14 differently prepared and stored coffee brews on amino phase with a 3-step gradient: 1) methanol - ethyl acetate 13:7 (1), 2) ethyl acetate - toluene - formic acid - water 70:11:15:4, and stopped below the eluted alkaloids caffeine and theobromine; and 3) up to 13 mm with water - methanol 3:2. The hRF values for caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were 95, 85, 18 and 21 in step (1), while for ferulic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, nicotinic acid and gallic acid were 60, 54, 51, 35 and 10 during step (2), and for melanoids was 12 in step (3). The following effect-directed assays on the chromatogram were also performed: DPPH scavenging asay, Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, Bacillus subtilis bioassay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay, α-glucosidase inhibition assay and planar yeast estrogen screen (pYES) bioassay. Further analysis by mass spectrometry using a electrospray interface. Coffee brews made by a fully automated coffee machine showed the highest antioxidative potential.
Marine Drugs 17(3), 148 (2019). Samples were ethyl acetate extracts of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica (Cymodoceaceae), and of algae: Austrophyllis harveyana (Kallymeniaceae), Carpoglossum confluens, Cystophora harveyi, C. monilifera, C. pectinata and C. subfarcinata, Myriodesma integrifolium, Sargassum lacerifolium (Sargassaceae), Codium fragile subsp. tasmanicum (Codiaceae), Ecklonia radiata (Lessoniaceae), Hypnea valida, Rhodophyllis membaneacea (Cystocloniaceae), Hormosira banksii (Hormosiraceae), Perithalia caudata (Sporochnaceae), Phyllospora comoasa, Scytothalia dorycarpa (Seirococcaceae), Plocamium dilatatum (Plocamiaceae), and epiphytic brown algae. HPTLC on silica gel (pre-washed with methanol and heated 30 min at 100 °C) with n-hexane – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 15:9:1. Derivatization by immersion: A) into anisaldehyde – sulfuric acid reagent, followed by 10 min heating at 105 °C, for the detection of steroids and terpenes; B) into DPPH• (0.2 % in methanol), followed by 30 min incubation in the dark, for the detection of antioxydants; C) into Fast Blue B solution (0.1 % in 70 % ethanol) for detection of phenols (with alkylresorcinols detected as dark purple zones on colorless background). Effect-directed analyses were performed directly on the plates. D) α-Amylase inhibition assay by immersion into enzyme solution, incubation 30 min at 37 °C, immersion into substrate solution (starch 2 % in water), incubation 20 min at 37 °C and immersion into Gram’s iodine solution for detection (inhibition zones appear blue on white background). E) Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay (after neutralization by immersion into phosphate buffer) by immersion into enzyme solution, incubation 30 min at 37 °C, immersion into substrate solution (α-naphthyl acetate) and into dye reagent (Fast Blue Salt B). Densitometry through automated scanning, quantification expressed as equivalents to the respective standards used for calibration curves: A) β-sitosterol (LOQ 1.6 µg/band), B) gallic acid (LOQ 60 ng/band), D) acarbose (LOQ 173 µg/band), E) donepezil (LOQ 96 µg/mL). Alkylresorcinols were detected as antioxydant in C. harveyi and C. pectinata (hRF 88), and in C. subfarcinata (hRF 72, 81, 88). Enzymatic inhibitors in C. fragile were considered as a flavone (hRF 65) and a terpenoid (hRF 77), due to their absorption curves (densitometric scan in range 200-400 nm).