Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS

Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.

The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:

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      130 141
      Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography for the characterization of milk peptide properties and a prediction of the retention behavior – a proof-of-principle study
      M. TREBLIN, T. VON OESEN, L.-C. CLASS, G. KUHNEN, I. CLAWIN-RÄDECKER, D. MARTIN, J. FRITSCHE, S. ROHN* (*Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Institute of Food Technology and Food Chemistry, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany;

      J Chromatogr A 1653, 462442 (2021). Samples were peptides obtained through tryptic hydrolysis of the 5 most abundant milk proteins: α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-, β- and κ-casein (CA). As standards, synthetic whey and pea (Pisum sativum, Fabaceae) peptides (selected based on the in silico tryptic digest of α-LA, β-LG, legumin A, and vicilin with one or zero miscleavages) were only used in the last assay for prediction of the RF values of peptides with known amino-acid (AA) sequences. Two-dimensional HPTLC on silica gel (pre-washed with methanol and activated 10 min at 100°), first with basic mobile phase sec-butanol – pyridine – ammonia – water 39:34:10:26, and (after 12h drying) in the orthogonal direction with acidic mobile phase sec-butanol – pyridine – acetic acid – water 11:8:2:5. Derivatization for peptides and proteins by immersion into fluorescamine (0.05 % in acetone); visualization under UV 254 nm and 365 nm. Computer-assisted determination of the x- and y-coordinates of the derivatized zones. Repeatability (n=8) of the 2D-HPTLC was statistically tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normal distribution and with Dixon’s Q test for outliers. Relative standard deviation (RSD) for the RF values was 12.9 % for the first dimension (y-coordinates) and 16.5 % for the second dimension (x-coordinates). According to their higher intensity and sharpness, 15 – 20 detected zones from each protein hydrolyzate were selected, manually scraped from the derivatized layer, dissolved in formic acid solution (0.1 % in acetonitrile – water 3:2), mixed with an equal volume of matrix (dihydroxybenzoic acid 2 % in acetonitrile – water 3:7), crystallized on air on a ground steel target, before being desorbed by the laser beam of the MALDI-TOF-MS/MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry). Direct hyphenation of HPTLC to MS was not performed, to avoid zone diffusion during plate coating with the matrix and to circumvent the stronger binding of polar peptides on the layer.  The MS spectra were acquired in positive reflector mode in m/z range 340 – 4000 (10 – 2500 for fragments), using an external peptide as calibration standard. Identification of 51 from the 85 selected peptides according to AA sequences was performed, using software programs allowing m/z calculation of protein fragments and estimation of cleavage sites. Correlation of the retention behaviour of the peptides with their properties (molecular weight MW, isoelectric point IEP, charges, polarity) was tested with Student’s two-sided t-test after calculation of Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The correlation was significant with IEP, percentages of anionic AA and of non-polar AA; but not with the following properties: MW, percentages of cationic AA and of uncharged polar AA. Finally, based on the correlation results, regression formulas were found to calculate the x- and y-coordinates of any known peptide from the percentage of non-polar AA (or vice-versa). The prediction power of these formulas was verified by repeating the complete 2D-HPTLC-MS experiment with the standard peptides of whey and of peas, and measuring the absolute and relative deviations between the actual x- and y-coordinates and the predicted values. The absolute deviations were higher in the lower RF zones. The average, relative RF value deviations (range 22.1 – 25.7 %) were not different between whey and pea peptides.

      Classification: 2c, 2d, 4e, 18b, 19, 32e
      130 146
      Development of a thin-layer chromatography bioautographic assay for neuraminidase inhibitors hyphenated with electrostatic field induced spray ionisation-mass spectrometry for identification of active Isatis indigotica root compounds
      Y. ZANG (Zang Yichao), Y. MIAO (Miao Yu), T. WU (Wu Tao)*, Z. CHENG (Cheng Zhihong)** (*Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China,; **Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China,

      J Chromatogr A 1638, 461597 (2021). Samples were Isatis tinctoria (= I. indigotica) root extracts (Brassicaceae) and their fractions. Standards were oseltamivir acid (OA), a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor; pinoresinol (PR, a lignan), β-sitosterol (SS, a sterol), and dihydro-neoascorbigen (DHNA, an alkaloid). HPTLC / TLC on silica gel with (1) petroleum ether – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 48:8:1 for petroleum ether extracts and SS, or 30:40:1 for ethyl acetate extracts, or 10:30:1 for PR; (2) with toluene – ethyl acetate – methanol – formic acid 16:3:1:2 or 10:4:1:2 also for ethyl acetate extracts and DHNA; (3) with n-butanol – acetic acid – water 25:4:3 for butanol extracts. OA was applied but not developed. RP-18, polyamide, cellulose, alumina layers were tested, but the resolution was lower. Derivatization by spraying with sulfuric acid (10 % in ethanol). Enzymatic assay by immersion of the plates into neuraminidase solution (6 U/mL), followed by 1 h incubation at 37 °C and by immersion into chromogenic substrate solution (1.75 mM 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid). After 5 min, NA inhibitors were seen as white zones on blue background. The experiment was previously improved for the following parameters: incubation times, substrate and enzyme concentrations, followed by statistical evaluation and calculations using Box-Behnken design. Quantification by absorbance measurement (detection wavelength 605 nm, reference wavelength 420 nm). In optimal conditions, OA had LOD 300 ng/zone. Zones of interest on underivatized plates were directly submitted to MS, using EFISI (electrostatic-field-induced spray ionisation), as follows. Chromatograms were immersed 1–3 s into dimethicone – n-hexane 1:1 to form a hydrophobic film, and dried 30 min at room temperature; on the analyte spot, a hydrophilic droplet was formed with 5 µL methanol – water 1:1, extracting the analyte from the layer; the analyte was further attracted through a capillary tube (3–4 cm long, made of non-deactivated fused silica) under a strong electrostatic field, into the in-let orifice of the triple-quadrupole ­– linear ion-trap MS (induction voltage 4 kV; capillary voltage 40 V; tube lens voltage 100 V; capillary temperature 200 °C). Full-scan spectra were recorded in m/z range 50 – 1000, helium was used for collision-induced dissociation. 11 active compounds were identified in the extract: SS, 6 alkaloids (including cycloanthranilylproline, DHNA, hydroxy-indirubin, isatindigodiphindoside, isatindinoline A and), 3 lignans (including PR and isolariciresinol), 1 fatty acid (trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid).

      Classification: 4e, 8a, 8b, 11a, 13c, 22
      130 149
      HPTLC/HPLC-mass spectrometry identification and NMR characterization of major flavonoids of wild lemongrass (Cymbopogon giganteus) collected in Burkina Faso
      R.K. BATIONO*, C.M. DABIRÉ, A. HEMA, R.H.CH. NÉBIÉ, E. PALÉ, M. NACRO (*Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Physics, Joseph Ki-Zerbo University, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso;

      Heliyon 8(8), e10103 (2022). Samples were a methanolic extract of Cymbopogon giganteus leaves (= C. caesius subsp. giganteus, Poaceae), as well as flavones as standards: isorhamnetin, luteolin and orientin (=luteolin 8-C-glucoside). HPTLC on silica gel with ethyl acetate – acetic acid – formic acid – water 100:11:11:26. Derivatization for flavones with Neu’s reagent (ethanolamine diphenylborate – PEG). Visualization under UV 365 nm. The standards (hRF 75, 70-72 and 96, respectively) were not detected in the extract. Some analytes detected by the reagent were scraped from the underivatized plate into a tube, and injected through a TLC-MS interface into a double-quadrupole – time-of-flight MS (electrospray ionization). Full mass scan spectra were recorded in positive and negative ionization modes in m/z range 150–550. For 3 of the compounds, isolated through MPLC columns, the HPTLC-MS results, combined to the NMR and HPLC-MS analyses, allowed the identification as epicatechin (hRF 86, a flavanol, not coloured by Neu’s reagent) and as luteolin 8-C- and 6-C-glucosides (hRF 67-70).

      Classification: 4e, 8a, 32e
      130 026
      New bakuchiol dimers from Psoraleae fructus and their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production
      Qingxia XU, Qian LV, Lu LIU, Yingtao ZHANG*, Xiuwei YANG**
      (State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Natural Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; *; **

      Chinese Medicine 16, 98 (2021). Preparative TLC on silica gel for the isolation of bisbakuchiol N (a terpenophenolic) from a cyclohexane extract of Psoralea corylifolia (= Cullen corylifolia, Fabaceae) mature fruits, after fractionation on silica gel, cyclodextrane and reverse-phase columns. Mobile phase was petroleum ether – chloroform 10:1. Derivatization with sulfuric acid (10 % in ethanol – water, 19:1).

      Classification: 4d, 7, 15a, 32e
      130 028
      The effect of extractive lacto-fermentation on the bioactivity and natural products content of Pittosporum angustifolium (gumbi gumbi) extracts
      (*Department of Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia, and School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia;

      J Chromatogr A, 1647, 462153 (2021). Samples were extracts of Pittosporum angustifolium leaves (Pittosporaceae), either pure or fermented 1-4 weeks in NaCl solution, as well as acarbose, gallic acid, β-sitosterol, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as standards. HPTLC on silica gel (prewashed with methanol and dried 15 min at 105 °C) with n-hexane – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 15:9:1. Derivatization by immersion (speed 5 cm/s, time 1 s): (A) into DPPH• 0.2 % solution, to detect radical scavengers; (B) into neutralized ferric chloride (3 % in ethanol), followed by 5 min heating at 110 °C, for detection of phenolic compounds; (C) into anisaldehyde – sulphuric acid reagent, followed by 10 min heating at 110 °C, to detect terpenes and steroids. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) for α-amylase inhibition assay (D) by immersion into enzyme solution, incubation 15 min at 37 °C, immersion into substrate solution (starch 2 % in water), incubation 20 min at 37 °C and immersion into Gram’s iodine solution for detection (inhibition zones appear blue on white background). In all cases, visualization under white light. Quantification was performed on pictures using image processing software, and expressed as equivalents to the respective standards used for calibration curves: (A) and (B) gallic acid (LOQ 250 and 740 ng/band, respectively), (C) β-sitosterol (LOQ 1.5 µg/band), (D) acarbose (LOQ 8 µg/band). Zones of interest, scraped from untreated plates and washed with ethyl acetate, were submitted by ATR-FTIR analysis. An amylase inhibiting zone (hRF 85) present in all extracts was identified as fatty acid esters: ethyl palmitate in unfermented and methyl linoleate in fermented extracts. Moreover, fermented extracts contained antioxidant zones (hRF 15 – 20), identified as monomers and oligomers (including hydroxycinnamic, guaiacyl, syringyl derivatives) from decomposed lignin.

      Classification: 4e, 7, 8b, 11a, 32e
      130 142
      Bioassay-guided identification of α-amylase inhibitors in herbal extracts
      Snezana AGATONOVIC-KUSTRIN*, E. KUSTRIN, V. GEGECHKORI, D. W. MORTON (*Department of Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia, and School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia;

      J Chromatogr A, 1620, 460970 (2020). Samples were ethyl acetate extracts of Lavandula angustifolia herb and flowers and of aerial parts of other Lamiaceae (Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis), as well as standards. HPTLC on silica gel (pre-washed with methanol and heated 30 min at 105 °C) with n-hexane – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 70:27:3. Documentation at UV 254 nm and 365 nm and white light before and after A) derivatization with anisaldehyde – sulfuric acid reagent, followed by 10 min heating at 110 °C; B) spraying with DPPH• (0.2 % in methanol), followed by 30 min incubation in the dark; C) α-amylase inhibition assay by immersion into enzyme solution, incubation 30 min at 37 °C, immersion into substrate solution (starch 1 % in water), incubation 20 min at 37 °C and immersion into Gram’s iodine solution for detection (inhibition zones appear blue on white background). Quantification was performed on pictures using image processing software, and expressed as equivalents to the respective standards used for calibration curves: A) β-sitosterol (LOQ 1.5 µg/band), B) gallic acid (LOQ 60 ng/band), C) acarbose (LOQ 8 µg/band). An amylase inhibiting zone (hRF 68) present in all samples (except L. angustifolia), scraped from untreated plates and washed with ethyl acetate, was tentatively identified by ATR-FTIR analysis as oleanolic acid (pentacyclic triterpene).

      Classification: 4e, 15a, 32e
      130 004
      Identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in water by combining two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry
      Lena STÜTZ*, W. SCHULZ, R. WINZENBACHER (*Laboratory for Operation Control and Research, Zweckverband Landeswasserversorgung, Langenau, Germany;

      J Chromatogr A, 1624, 461239 (2020). Samples were chemical standards of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (azamethiphos, caffeine, donepezil, galanthamine, methiocarb-sulfoxide, paraoxon-ethyl) and of neurotoxic compounds, as well as drinking or contaminated water samples enriched through solid phase extraction. HPTLC on spherical silica gel (pre-washed twice by 20 min immersion in isopropanol, heated 20 min at 120 °C before and after pre-washing with acetonitrile). First separation (preparative TLC) with automated multiple development (16 steps). Effect-directed analysis for AChE inhibitors by immersion (speed 5 cm/s, time 1 s) into enzyme solution, incubation 5 min at 37 °C and immersion into substrate solution (indoxyl acetate 2 % in methanol); visualization under UV 366 nm. Active zones from untreated layers were eluted through the oval head of a TLC-MS interface to a second plate for a second separation with a panel of other mobile phases. Bands of interest were eluted from the second layer with water through the oval elution head of the TLC-MS interface pump, into a RP18 liquid chromatography guard column, followed by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 100–1200) were recorded in negative and positive modes using electrospray ionization (and collision-induced dissociation for MS2). Among the water contaminants, lumichrome (riboflavin photolysis product), paraxanthine and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates were identified as AChE inhibitors.

      Classification: 3d, 4d, 4e, 22, 29b, 35d, 37c
      130 002
      An improved method for a fast screening of α-glucosidase inhibitors in cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill.) applying effect-directed analysis via high-performance thin-layer chromatography-bioassay-mass spectrometry
      (*Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile;,

      J Chromatogr A, 1608, 460415 (2019). Samples were acetonitrile extracts of Annona cherimola fruit peel, pulp and seeds (Annonaceae), as well as caffeic acid as standards. HPTLC on silica gel with chloroform – ethyl acetate – propanol 21:2:2 for peel extracts, with chloroform – methanol 9:1 for seed extracts. Derivatization by spraying Dragendorff’s reagent for alkaloids, secondary amines and non-nitrogenous oxygenated compounds.  Effect-directed assay was performed for inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Before sample application, plates were developed with enzyme substrate (2-naphthyl-α-D-glucopyranoside 0.1 % in methanol) and dried 20 min at 60 °C. Then, samples were applied and separated, and mobile phase was removed by heating 10 min at 60 °C. The chromatogram was sprayed with 4 mL enzyme solution (5 unit/mL in 100 mM phosphate buffer,  pH 7.4), liquid excess was removed under lukewarm air stream, the plate was incubated 10 min at 37 °C in a moisture box, followed by spraying chromogenic reagent Fast Blue salt B 0.1 % in water, giving after 2 min white inhibition bands visible on purple background under white light. Plate image was documented under illumination (reflectance mode) with white light. The bands of 3 inhibiting compounds were analyzed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. 1) Full scan mass spectra (m/z 50−1000) in the positive ionization mode were recorded using electrospray ionization (ESI, spray voltage 3 kV, desolvation line temperature 250 °C, block temperature 400 °C) for compounds directly eluted with methanol – acetonitrile through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump. 2) Compounds were also isolated (either eluted directly from the plate into a vial through the same interface, or scraped from the plate and extracted with methanol – chloroform into a vial), dried, and submitted to HPLC-DAD-MS/MS; MS-MS spectra were recorded in the same conditions, using argon as collision gas and collision cell voltages from -20 and -40 V. Inhibitors were identified as phenolamides (phenylethyl cinnamides): moupinamide (hRF 66 in peels, 56 in seeds), N-trans-feruloyl phenethylamine (hRF 76 in peels), N-trans-p-coumaroyl tyramine (hRF 44 in seeds).

      Classification: 4d, 4e, 7, 17c, 32e