Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS

Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.

The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:

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      131 012
      Chemical comparison of monk fruit products processed by different drying methods using High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography combined with chemometric analysis
      H. HONG (Hong Huijie), Q. YANG (Yang Qi), Q. LIU (Liu Qiao), F. LEONG (Leong Fong), X. CHEN (Chen Xiaojia)* (*State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, Macao SAR, China,

      Front. Nutr. 9, 887992 (2022). HPTLC of 13 mogrosides, 1 flavonoid, and 3 sugars in monk fruit products on silica gel with n-butanol - water - ethanol - acetic acid 70:10:10:2. Detection by spraying with 10 % sulfuric acid in ethanol solution, followed by heating at 105 °C for 10 min. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was subsequently conducted allowing the identification mogroside V, 11-oxo-mogroside V, isomogroside V, mogroside IV and sucrose to be the characteristic compounds to distinguish the two types of monk fruits.

      Classification: 8a
      131 022
      The potential off-target neuroprotective effect of sister gliflozins suggests their repurposing despite not crossing the blood–brain barrier: From bioanalytical assay in rats into theory genesis
      M. HENDY*, S. MOWAKA, E. ELKADY, A. EL-ZAHER, B. AYOUB (*School of Arts and Sciences, Concordia University Irvine (CUI), 1530 Concordia West, Irvine, CA 92612, USA,,)

      J. Sep. Sci. 46, 2200921 (2023). Review of the techniques for the analysis of sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, including HPTLC for the determination of canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin.

      Classification: 1b, 8a
      131 057
      Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of quercetin, berberine, rutin and curcumin in a polyherbal formulation using high‑performance thin‑layer chromatography
      A. KHAINAR, S. LOHIDASAN*, R. DUBEY, S. SANKARAN (*Department of Quality Assurance Techniques, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411038, Maharashtra, India,

      J. Planar Chromatogr. 36, 63-70 (2023). HPTLC of quercetin (1), berberine (2), rutin (3) and curcumin (4) in a polyherbal formulation on silica gel with toluene - ethyl acetate - methanol - formic acid 10:6:4:1. Quantitative determination by absorbance measurement at 366 nm for (1) to (3) and 425 nm for (4). The hRF values for (1) to (4) were 57, 30, 9 and 66, respectively. Linearity was in the range of 500-3000 ng/zone for (1), 200-700 ng/zone for (2), 1000-6000 ng/zone for (3) and 100-350 ng/zone for (4). Intermediate precisions were below 2 % (n=6). LOD and LOQ were 119 and 362 ng/zone for (1), 33 and 100 ng/zone for (2), 248 and 750 ng/zone for (3) and 14 and 42 ng/zone for (4). Recovery was between 95 and 102 % for (1) to (4).

      Classification: 7, 8a, 8b
      131 069
      Development and validation of a novel high‑performance thin‑layer chromatography method for the quantitative estimation of neohesperidin from Citrus aurantium peel extract
      P. TATKARE, A. JADHAV* (*Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector 8, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 614, India,

      J. Planar Chromatogr. 35, 579-584 (2022). HPTLC of neohesperidin from Citrus aurantium peel extract on silica gel with ethyl acetate - methanol - water - formic acid 71:14:10:5. Quantitative determination by absorbance measurement at 254 nm. The hRF value for neohesperidin was 54. Linearity was between 1000 and 3000 ng/zone. Intermediate precisions were below 2 % (n=9). Recovery was between 99.6 and 101.8 %. 

      Classification: 8a
      130 081
      Applicability of the Universal Mixture for describing system suitability and quality of analytical data in routine normal phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography methods
      M. SCHMID, T.K. Tiên Do*, I. TRETTIN, E. REICH (*CAMAG, Muttenz, Switzerland;

      J Chromatogr A 1666, 462863 (2022). Theoretical discussion on the factors determining the RF value of a given substance in a chromatographic system: A) the stationary phase (SP); B) the mobile phase (MP), the composition of which can be different from the solvent mixture prepared because of evaporation, saturation and liquid or gas adsorption effects over migration time; C) the difference of the free energies for the analyte transfer from SP to MP; D) external parameters like temperature and humidity. The universal HPTLC mixture (UHM) is a mixture of reference compounds that can be used for the system suitability test (SST) for the full RF range in all HPTLC experiments. Its composition is: thioxanthen-9-one (0.001 %), guanosine (0.05 %), phthalimide (0.2 %), 9-hydroxyfluorene, octrizole, paracetamol, sulisobenzone and thymidine (each 0.1 %), in methanol. The purpose was to study the potential of UHM to replace SST (described with specific markers in European Pharmacopoeia monographs) and to assess the quality of HPTLC results. TLC and HPTLC silica gel on different support (aluminium, glass) or with different granulometries and binders (classic, Durasil, Adamant), of the UHM, an acetonitrile extract of Abelmoschus manihot flowers (Malvaceae), a methanol extract of Sambucus canadensis flowers (Adoxaceae), and essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, of Mentha × piperita (Lamiaceae) and of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), as well as the following specific markers (standards): borneol, bornyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate (terpenoids), isoeugenol, isoeugenol acetate, chlorogenic acid (phenylpropanoids), gossypin (flavone), gossypetin-glucuronide, hyperoside (flavonol heterosides). Development (after 20 min plate conditioning with a saturated MgCl2 solution) with one of the following mobile phases: (MP1) toluene – ethyl acetate 19:1, especially for essential oils; (MP2) ethyl acetate – butanone – formic acid – water 5:3:1:1, especially for S. canadensis; (MP3) ethyl acetate – acetic acid – formic acid – water 100:11:11:26, especially for A. manihot. Documentation in UV 254 nm and 350 nm, and with white light (reflection + transmission), before and after derivatization. RF values were determined by scanning densitometry at 254 nm in absorption mode (for octrizole, at 366 nm in fluorescence mode with mercury lamp and optical filter K400 nm). For each HPTLC condition, intra-laboratory precision assay of UHM separation was performed (at least 5 analyses) with average RF values and 95 % prediction intervals, and calculating RF differences between pairs of UHM constituents and 95 % confidence intervals, which were max. +/-0.012 of the RF values for all UHM and markers. The sensitivity of UHM, and thus its usefulness as generic SST was demonstrated by repeating the HPTLC experiments with modifying by 10 % the quantity of one of the solvent each time. There were always significant changes in RF values of UHM components and/or in RF differences between pairs of UHM bands; it was often but no always the case with the official specific markers. UHM underwent also significant changes (although less than A. manihot extract) when several silica gel phases were compared under the same HPTLC conditions. This property is crucial to verify the right stationary phase before doing any RF correlations, and could make UHM a universal tool to identify discrepancies between different analyses. Finally, the use of UHM for a computer-supported evaluation of HPTLC results was discussed, either for zone identification and RF corrections (within confidence intervals), or for correlations of entire fingerprints as first step to implement machine learning algorithms.

      Classification: 2a, 2f, 3g, 7, 8a, 15a, 15b, 32e
      130 146
      Development of a thin-layer chromatography bioautographic assay for neuraminidase inhibitors hyphenated with electrostatic field induced spray ionisation-mass spectrometry for identification of active Isatis indigotica root compounds
      Y. ZANG (Zang Yichao), Y. MIAO (Miao Yu), T. WU (Wu Tao)*, Z. CHENG (Cheng Zhihong)** (*Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China,; **Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China,

      J Chromatogr A 1638, 461597 (2021). Samples were Isatis tinctoria (= I. indigotica) root extracts (Brassicaceae) and their fractions. Standards were oseltamivir acid (OA), a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor; pinoresinol (PR, a lignan), β-sitosterol (SS, a sterol), and dihydro-neoascorbigen (DHNA, an alkaloid). HPTLC / TLC on silica gel with (1) petroleum ether – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 48:8:1 for petroleum ether extracts and SS, or 30:40:1 for ethyl acetate extracts, or 10:30:1 for PR; (2) with toluene – ethyl acetate – methanol – formic acid 16:3:1:2 or 10:4:1:2 also for ethyl acetate extracts and DHNA; (3) with n-butanol – acetic acid – water 25:4:3 for butanol extracts. OA was applied but not developed. RP-18, polyamide, cellulose, alumina layers were tested, but the resolution was lower. Derivatization by spraying with sulfuric acid (10 % in ethanol). Enzymatic assay by immersion of the plates into neuraminidase solution (6 U/mL), followed by 1 h incubation at 37 °C and by immersion into chromogenic substrate solution (1.75 mM 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid). After 5 min, NA inhibitors were seen as white zones on blue background. The experiment was previously improved for the following parameters: incubation times, substrate and enzyme concentrations, followed by statistical evaluation and calculations using Box-Behnken design. Quantification by absorbance measurement (detection wavelength 605 nm, reference wavelength 420 nm). In optimal conditions, OA had LOD 300 ng/zone. Zones of interest on underivatized plates were directly submitted to MS, using EFISI (electrostatic-field-induced spray ionisation), as follows. Chromatograms were immersed 1–3 s into dimethicone – n-hexane 1:1 to form a hydrophobic film, and dried 30 min at room temperature; on the analyte spot, a hydrophilic droplet was formed with 5 µL methanol – water 1:1, extracting the analyte from the layer; the analyte was further attracted through a capillary tube (3–4 cm long, made of non-deactivated fused silica) under a strong electrostatic field, into the in-let orifice of the triple-quadrupole ­– linear ion-trap MS (induction voltage 4 kV; capillary voltage 40 V; tube lens voltage 100 V; capillary temperature 200 °C). Full-scan spectra were recorded in m/z range 50 – 1000, helium was used for collision-induced dissociation. 11 active compounds were identified in the extract: SS, 6 alkaloids (including cycloanthranilylproline, DHNA, hydroxy-indirubin, isatindigodiphindoside, isatindinoline A and), 3 lignans (including PR and isolariciresinol), 1 fatty acid (trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid).

      Classification: 4e, 8a, 8b, 11a, 13c, 22
      130 149
      HPTLC/HPLC-mass spectrometry identification and NMR characterization of major flavonoids of wild lemongrass (Cymbopogon giganteus) collected in Burkina Faso
      R.K. BATIONO*, C.M. DABIRÉ, A. HEMA, R.H.CH. NÉBIÉ, E. PALÉ, M. NACRO (*Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Physics, Joseph Ki-Zerbo University, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso;

      Heliyon 8(8), e10103 (2022). Samples were a methanolic extract of Cymbopogon giganteus leaves (= C. caesius subsp. giganteus, Poaceae), as well as flavones as standards: isorhamnetin, luteolin and orientin (=luteolin 8-C-glucoside). HPTLC on silica gel with ethyl acetate – acetic acid – formic acid – water 100:11:11:26. Derivatization for flavones with Neu’s reagent (ethanolamine diphenylborate – PEG). Visualization under UV 365 nm. The standards (hRF 75, 70-72 and 96, respectively) were not detected in the extract. Some analytes detected by the reagent were scraped from the underivatized plate into a tube, and injected through a TLC-MS interface into a double-quadrupole – time-of-flight MS (electrospray ionization). Full mass scan spectra were recorded in positive and negative ionization modes in m/z range 150–550. For 3 of the compounds, isolated through MPLC columns, the HPTLC-MS results, combined to the NMR and HPLC-MS analyses, allowed the identification as epicatechin (hRF 86, a flavanol, not coloured by Neu’s reagent) and as luteolin 8-C- and 6-C-glucosides (hRF 67-70).

      Classification: 4e, 8a, 32e
      130 036
      Propolis from Nariño: Physicochemical properties and biological activity of Propolis
      G. SALAMANCA*, M. OSORIO, J. CABRERA (* Department of Chemistry, University of Tolima, Ibague, Colombia,

      Biotecnologia en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial. 20, 152-154 (2022). HPTLC of propolis on silica gel with toluene - ethyl acetate - formic acid 30:12:5. Detection under UV light at 254 and 366 nm. The method allowed the identification of apigenin, naringenin, quercetin, caffeic acid, galangin, feruloyl and derivatives of coumaric acid.

      Classification: 8a