Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS

Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.

The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:

  • Full text search: Enter a keyword, e.g. an author's name, a substance, a technique, a reagent or a term and see all related publications
  • Browse and search by CBS classification: Select one of the 38 CBS classification categories where you want to search by a keyword
  • Keyword register: select an initial character and browse associated keywords
  • Search by CBS edition: Select a CBS edition and find all related publications

Registered users can create a tailor made PDF of selected articles throughout CCBS search – simply use the cart icon on the right hand of each abstract to create your individual selection of abstracts. You can export your saved items to PDF by clicking the download icon.

      130 081
      Applicability of the Universal Mixture for describing system suitability and quality of analytical data in routine normal phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography methods
      M. SCHMID, T.K. Tiên Do*, I. TRETTIN, E. REICH (*CAMAG, Muttenz, Switzerland;

      J Chromatogr A 1666, 462863 (2022). Theoretical discussion on the factors determining the RF value of a given substance in a chromatographic system: A) the stationary phase (SP); B) the mobile phase (MP), the composition of which can be different from the solvent mixture prepared because of evaporation, saturation and liquid or gas adsorption effects over migration time; C) the difference of the free energies for the analyte transfer from SP to MP; D) external parameters like temperature and humidity. The universal HPTLC mixture (UHM) is a mixture of reference compounds that can be used for the system suitability test (SST) for the full RF range in all HPTLC experiments. Its composition is: thioxanthen-9-one (0.001 %), guanosine (0.05 %), phthalimide (0.2 %), 9-hydroxyfluorene, octrizole, paracetamol, sulisobenzone and thymidine (each 0.1 %), in methanol. The purpose was to study the potential of UHM to replace SST (described with specific markers in European Pharmacopoeia monographs) and to assess the quality of HPTLC results. TLC and HPTLC silica gel on different support (aluminium, glass) or with different granulometries and binders (classic, Durasil, Adamant), of the UHM, an acetonitrile extract of Abelmoschus manihot flowers (Malvaceae), a methanol extract of Sambucus canadensis flowers (Adoxaceae), and essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, of Mentha × piperita (Lamiaceae) and of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae), as well as the following specific markers (standards): borneol, bornyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate (terpenoids), isoeugenol, isoeugenol acetate, chlorogenic acid (phenylpropanoids), gossypin (flavone), gossypetin-glucuronide, hyperoside (flavonol heterosides). Development (after 20 min plate conditioning with a saturated MgCl2 solution) with one of the following mobile phases: (MP1) toluene – ethyl acetate 19:1, especially for essential oils; (MP2) ethyl acetate – butanone – formic acid – water 5:3:1:1, especially for S. canadensis; (MP3) ethyl acetate – acetic acid – formic acid – water 100:11:11:26, especially for A. manihot. Documentation in UV 254 nm and 350 nm, and with white light (reflection + transmission), before and after derivatization. RF values were determined by scanning densitometry at 254 nm in absorption mode (for octrizole, at 366 nm in fluorescence mode with mercury lamp and optical filter K400 nm). For each HPTLC condition, intra-laboratory precision assay of UHM separation was performed (at least 5 analyses) with average RF values and 95 % prediction intervals, and calculating RF differences between pairs of UHM constituents and 95 % confidence intervals, which were max. +/-0.012 of the RF values for all UHM and markers. The sensitivity of UHM, and thus its usefulness as generic SST was demonstrated by repeating the HPTLC experiments with modifying by 10 % the quantity of one of the solvent each time. There were always significant changes in RF values of UHM components and/or in RF differences between pairs of UHM bands; it was often but no always the case with the official specific markers. UHM underwent also significant changes (although less than A. manihot extract) when several silica gel phases were compared under the same HPTLC conditions. This property is crucial to verify the right stationary phase before doing any RF correlations, and could make UHM a universal tool to identify discrepancies between different analyses. Finally, the use of UHM for a computer-supported evaluation of HPTLC results was discussed, either for zone identification and RF corrections (within confidence intervals), or for correlations of entire fingerprints as first step to implement machine learning algorithms.

      Classification: 2a, 2f, 3g, 7, 8a, 15a, 15b, 32e
      130 023
      Quality standard of traditional Chinese medicines: comparison between European Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopoeia and recent advances
      F. LEONG (Leong Fong), X. HUA (Hua Xue), M. WANG (Wang Mei), T. CHEN (Chen Tongkai), Y. SONG (Song Yuelin), P. TU (Tu Pengfei), X. CHEN (Chen Xiao-Jia)* (*State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao, China;

      Chinese Medicine 15, 76 (2020). This review compared the 2020 editions of Chinese (ChP) and European Pharmacopoeas (EuP) in different aspects of quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal plants (73 of which drugs were common to both, but with differences in species or organs for 17 of them). Discussed points included history, identification, plant origin and processing, sample preparation, marker selection, tests and assays, as well as advanced analytical techniques for quality control and for the establishment of comprehensive quality standard. TLC was discussed in relation to its following aspects: purposes, markers/references, techniques and result description.
      (A) The main uses of TLC and HPTLC were (1) chemical-based identification of the plant in a more accurate and precise method than by macroscopic and microscopic observation only, and in a more direct and easily interpretation than HPLC, and allowing the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in parallel; (2) control of possible adulterants; (3) quantification of active compounds. Both uses (1) and (2) were combined in some EuP monographs: as example were given the roots of Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A. sinensis, using TLC for identification of the species and of adulterants from other species (Angelica, Levisticum and Ligusticum).
      (B) In ChP, identification through TLC was in most cases achieved by fingerprint comparison to an official reference extract or herb (herbal reference substance). At the opposite, EuP often indicated analytical markers, irrespective of any pharmacological activity, but chosen only for analytical purposes in TCM identification and quantification. Examples were: aescin and arbutin as analytical markers for TLC identification of Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizome and Panax notoginseng root.
      For the TLC system suitability assessment tests, ChP used the same intensity markers or active markers that were chosen for the identification or assay; whereas EuP often used other specific references, e.g. isoeugenol and methyleugenol in the case of Ophiopogon japonicus roots.
      (C) For the techniques, conventional separations and chemical derivatizations were used. Hyphenations of TLC to other analytical methods (e.g. MS) were absent. Only one monograph applied an effect-directed analysis directly on TLC chromatogram (free DPPH• radical scavenging assay for TLC identification of Rehmannia glutinosa root, in ChP).
      Sometimes, the TLC methods were different between both reference books for the same species. Example was given for Belamcanda chinensis (=Iris domestica) rhizome: in EuP, development on silica gel with cyclohexane – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 20:80:1, detection under UV 254 nm, comparison to standards coumarin and irisflorentin; whereas in ChP, development on polyamide layer with chloroform – butanone – methanol (3:1:1), detection under UV 365nm after derivatization with aluminium chloride, comparison to a reference rhizome powder.
       (D) Finally, the results in ChP were described as a text stating the similarity of sample profile with the profile of the chosen reference, whereas the results in EuP were described with a schematic box indicating the positions of bands of interest.

      Classification: 1, 2a, 32e
      103 003
      Development of nontraditional planar chromatographic methods
      V.G. BEREZKIN (A. V. Topchiev Insitute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 29, Moskow, 117912 Russia;

      J. Planar Chromatogr. 21, 325-329 (2008). Development and systematization of nontraditional TLC methods, in which the chromatographic process occurs in a closed absorption layer on a standard TLC plate. The advantages and limitations of the methods were assessed and the expediency of their further development and wider use in practical TLC was proved.

      Keywords: review
      Classification: 2a
      57 043
      Comparison of methods for separating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance thin-layer chromatography

      J. Chromatogr. 302, 149-158 (1984). HPTLC of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on different stationary phases with various mobile phases in several development modes, conventional, continuous, and multiple development. Reversed-phases in separation using RP-18 silica and methanol - water or methanol - water based ternary solvent system gave the best result.

      Classification: 2a, 5b
      60 008
      Chromatography of organometallic and organometalloidal derivatives of amino alcohols
      V.A. BELIKOV*, V.D. SHATZ, E. LUKEVICS, (*Inst. Org. Synth., Latvian SSR Acad. Sci., Riga, USSR)

      IV.: Comparison of retention behaviour in gas-liquid, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 388, 161-177 (1987). TLC of organometalloid derivatives of amino alcohols on silica with solvent systems consisting of isopropanol and hexane. Detection by iodine vapor and wetting with water. Calculation of Rm values. Comparison of the retention behaviors in GC, TLC and HPLC.

      Classification: 2a, 6, 26a
      62 012
      Adsorption chromatography on cellulose
      A.O. KUHN, M. LEDERER, (Inst. Chim. Miner. Anal., Univ. Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland)

      I. Salting-out chromatography of organic compounds. J. Chromatogr. 406, 389-404 (1987). Study on the adsorption on cellulose of organic compounds from aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions. The adsorption increases with increasing concentration of ammonium sulfate for all compounds examined. Investigation of the relationship between RM values and the activity of ammonium sulfate. Conclusion: the mechanism of adsorption is a non-specific hydrophobic interaction.

      Classification: 2a
      65 009
      Retention behavior of some classes of pharmaceutical products on chemically modified thin-layer chromatographic plates
      J. DINGENEN, A. PLUYM, (Dep. Chem., Dev. Janssen Pharm., B-2340 Beerse, Belg.)

      J. Chromatogr. 475, 95-112 (1989). Studies of the characteristics of some commonly available precoated polar modified TLC plates, using normal and reversed-phase conditions with a series of butyrophenones and benzimidazol-z-ones as model compounds. Examination of the influence of different types of salts, salt concentration, organic modifier content, the use of ion-pair reagents and pH values of retention behavior.

      Classification: 2a, 32
      69 013
      Combined use of normal and reversed phase thin layer chromatography in the screening for basic and quaternary drugs
      I. OJANPERÄ*, J. VARTIOVAARA, A. RUOHONEN, E. VUORI, (*Dept. Forensic Medicine, Univ. Helsinki, Kytösuontie 11, SF-00300 Helsinki, Finland)

      J. Liquid Chromatogr. 14, 1435-1446 (1991). Screening for 140 drugs on silica with toluene - acetone - ethanol - NH3 45:45:7:3 and on RP-18 with methanol - water - hydrochloric acid 50:50:1. Evaluation of the combination for identification with the mean list length method: a value of 1.7 obtained for the present combination, and values of 2.5 and 5.5 for another TLC/RPTLC combination and a TLC/TLC combination, respectively (95% cumultative probability). Study on the influence of Rf correction on RPTLC reproducibility.

      Classification: 2a, 32c