Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS
Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.
The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:
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J Chromatogr A 1638, 461597 (2021). Samples were Isatis tinctoria (= I. indigotica) root extracts (Brassicaceae) and their fractions. Standards were oseltamivir acid (OA), a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor; pinoresinol (PR, a lignan), β-sitosterol (SS, a sterol), and dihydro-neoascorbigen (DHNA, an alkaloid). HPTLC / TLC on silica gel with (1) petroleum ether – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 48:8:1 for petroleum ether extracts and SS, or 30:40:1 for ethyl acetate extracts, or 10:30:1 for PR; (2) with toluene – ethyl acetate – methanol – formic acid 16:3:1:2 or 10:4:1:2 also for ethyl acetate extracts and DHNA; (3) with n-butanol – acetic acid – water 25:4:3 for butanol extracts. OA was applied but not developed. RP-18, polyamide, cellulose, alumina layers were tested, but the resolution was lower. Derivatization by spraying with sulfuric acid (10 % in ethanol). Enzymatic assay by immersion of the plates into neuraminidase solution (6 U/mL), followed by 1 h incubation at 37 °C and by immersion into chromogenic substrate solution (1.75 mM 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid). After 5 min, NA inhibitors were seen as white zones on blue background. The experiment was previously improved for the following parameters: incubation times, substrate and enzyme concentrations, followed by statistical evaluation and calculations using Box-Behnken design. Quantification by absorbance measurement (detection wavelength 605 nm, reference wavelength 420 nm). In optimal conditions, OA had LOD 300 ng/zone. Zones of interest on underivatized plates were directly submitted to MS, using EFISI (electrostatic-field-induced spray ionisation), as follows. Chromatograms were immersed 1–3 s into dimethicone – n-hexane 1:1 to form a hydrophobic film, and dried 30 min at room temperature; on the analyte spot, a hydrophilic droplet was formed with 5 µL methanol – water 1:1, extracting the analyte from the layer; the analyte was further attracted through a capillary tube (3–4 cm long, made of non-deactivated fused silica) under a strong electrostatic field, into the in-let orifice of the triple-quadrupole – linear ion-trap MS (induction voltage 4 kV; capillary voltage 40 V; tube lens voltage 100 V; capillary temperature 200 °C). Full-scan spectra were recorded in m/z range 50 – 1000, helium was used for collision-induced dissociation. 11 active compounds were identified in the extract: SS, 6 alkaloids (including cycloanthranilylproline, DHNA, hydroxy-indirubin, isatindigodiphindoside, isatindinoline A and), 3 lignans (including PR and isolariciresinol), 1 fatty acid (trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid).
Marine Drugs 19(3), 161 (2021). Samples were a standard mix (tripalmitin, palmitic acid, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine) and lipid-enriched extracts of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio, Cyprinidae), that were anesthetized with tricaine after having being treated with 11 extracts of cyanobacteria strains and/or with a green fluorescent lipid analogue of fatty acids (BODIPY-C16, bore-dipyrromethene derivative). HPTLC on nano silica gel in 3 steps: 1) and 2) with chloroform – methanol – water 12:6:1 (twice up to 4 cm); 3) hexane – diethyl ether – acetic acid 160:40:3 (once up to 9 cm). Derivatization of lipids by spraying primuline solution (0.01 % in acetone – water, 3:2). Quantification based on fluorescence peak area intensity, was performed using image software on pictures taken through a green fluorescence imager. Triglycerides were decreased in the case of larvae treated with 2 extracts of Synechocystis strains (Merismopediaceae), but the levels of other lipid classes were not affected. No treatment significantly affected the incorporation of BODIPY-C16 into any of the lipid classes of the larvae.
J Chromatogr A, 1647, 462153 (2021). Samples were extracts of Pittosporum angustifolium leaves (Pittosporaceae), either pure or fermented 1-4 weeks in NaCl solution, as well as acarbose, gallic acid, β-sitosterol, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as standards. HPTLC on silica gel (prewashed with methanol and dried 15 min at 105 °C) with n-hexane – ethyl acetate – acetic acid 15:9:1. Derivatization by immersion (speed 5 cm/s, time 1 s): (A) into DPPH• 0.2 % solution, to detect radical scavengers; (B) into neutralized ferric chloride (3 % in ethanol), followed by 5 min heating at 110 °C, for detection of phenolic compounds; (C) into anisaldehyde – sulphuric acid reagent, followed by 10 min heating at 110 °C, to detect terpenes and steroids. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) for α-amylase inhibition assay (D) by immersion into enzyme solution, incubation 15 min at 37 °C, immersion into substrate solution (starch 2 % in water), incubation 20 min at 37 °C and immersion into Gram’s iodine solution for detection (inhibition zones appear blue on white background). In all cases, visualization under white light. Quantification was performed on pictures using image processing software, and expressed as equivalents to the respective standards used for calibration curves: (A) and (B) gallic acid (LOQ 250 and 740 ng/band, respectively), (C) β-sitosterol (LOQ 1.5 µg/band), (D) acarbose (LOQ 8 µg/band). Zones of interest, scraped from untreated plates and washed with ethyl acetate, were submitted by ATR-FTIR analysis. An amylase inhibiting zone (hRF 85) present in all extracts was identified as fatty acid esters: ethyl palmitate in unfermented and methyl linoleate in fermented extracts. Moreover, fermented extracts contained antioxidant zones (hRF 15 – 20), identified as monomers and oligomers (including hydroxycinnamic, guaiacyl, syringyl derivatives) from decomposed lignin.
J Chromatogr A, 1675, 463167 (2022). Samples were ethanol extracts (and their flash chromatography fractions) of Prunus armeniaca leaves (Rosaceae), as well as betulinic, linolenic, maslinic (= crataegolic), oleanolic, ursolic acids and pygenic acids A (= corosolic acid) and B b as standards. When needed, to improve separation of triterpenoids, reversible pre-chromatographic derivatization was performed in situ by applying 10 µL iodine solution (2 % in chloroform) either before development on the deposit band, or for 2D-HPTLC after a first separation up to 60 mm and before a second orthogonal separation. Layers were covered 10 min with glass sheet after iodine application, and then dried 1 min under cold air stream. HPTLC on silica gel with chloroform – ethyl acetate – methanol 20:3:2, 85:9:6, or 15:2:3), followed by 5-10 min drying under cold air stream (eliminating iodine completely). Post-chromatographic derivatization by immersion (time 2 s, speed 3 cm/s) into vanillin – sulfuric acid (40 mg and 200µL, respectively, in 10 mL ethanol), followed by heating 5 min at 110 °C. Antibacterial effect-directed analysis was performed by immersion (time 8 s) into Bacillus subtilis suspension, followed by 2 h incubation at 37 °C, immersion in MTT solution and 30 min incubation at 37 °C. Active bands were eluted from layer with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a single quadrupole mass spectrometer to record full scan mass spectra (m/z 200–1200 in both modes) using electrospray ionization (interface temperature 350°C, heat block temperature 400°C, desolvation line temperature 250°C, detector voltage 4.5kV). Five triterpenoids were identified: betulinic, corosolic, maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids, acid, as well as two fatty acids: linolenic and palmitic acid.
J Chromatogr A, 1605, 460371 (2019). HPTLC of toluene – ethyl acetate extracts of Primula boveana leaves and of P. veris (Primulaceae) on silica gel with n-hexane – ethyl acetate 7:3. Visualization under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Derivatization by spraying with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent, followed by heating for 4 min at 105 °C. Effect-directed analysis: A) for activity against Gram-negative (Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay) or Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis bioassay) using automated immersion; B) for enzymatic inhibition (acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase) using piezoelectric spraying, with rivastigmine as standard, and absorbance spectra (500 nm) for P. boveana active bands measured by inverse scanning. Active bands were eluted from the untreated layer with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer to record full scan mass spectra (m/z 100−1000) using electrospray ionization (ESI voltage 3.5kV for P. boveana, -3kV for P. veris, source temperature 250°C). With the further help of preparative HPLC – NMR, they were identified as linoleic and linolenic acids in P. veris, and as flavone and its derivatives: hydroxyflavone, methoxyflavone and zapotin, in P. boveana.
Molecules, 26 (5), 1468 (2021). Summary: Samples were fortified extracts produced with iPowder technology (involving spray-drying of a rich first extract on a new batch of the same plant) from following plants: Camellia sinensis final bud and two leaves (Theaceae), Cynara scolumus leaves and Echinacea purpurea roots (Asteraceae), Eleutherococcus senticosus roots (Araliaceae), Equisetum arvense aerial part (Equisetaceae), Eschscholzia californica aerial parts (Papaveraceae), Humulus lupulus cones (Cannabaceae), Ilex paraguariensis leaves (Aquifoliaceae), Melissa officinalis aerial parts and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (Lamiaceae), Passiflora incarnata aerial part (Passifloraceae), Raphanus sativus var. niger roots (Brassicaceae), Ribes nigrum leaves (Grossulariaceae), Spiraea ulmaria floral tops (Rosaceae), Valeriana officinalis roots (Caprifoliaceae), Vitis vinifera leaves or pomace (Vitaceae). HPTLC on silica gel with 1) ethyl acetate – toluene – formic acid – water 16:4:3:2, or 2) cyclohexane – ethyl acetate – formic acid 30:19:1. Detection under white light, UV 254 nm and 366 nm. Extract stability after 2 years was also checked through HPTLC. Neutralization by spraying phosphate-citrate buffer, and drying in cold air stream. Effect-directed analysis using automated piezoelectrical spraying: A) for enzymatic inhibition (acetyl-cholinesterase, glucosidase, glucuronidase, tyrosinase); B) for activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay). Active bands of multipotent compounds were eluted from HPTLC layers with methanol through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 100−1000) in the positive and negative ionization modes were recorded using heated electrospray ionization (HESI, spray voltage 3.5 kV, capillary temperature 270 °C). By comparison to literature, the following compounds were assigned: caffeine, catechins, carnosol, chlorogenic acid, cynaratriol, dicaffeoylquinic acid, feruloyl quinic acid, gallic acid, linoleic and linolenic acids, oleanic or ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid.
J Chromatogr A, 1611, 460602 (2020). Samples were methanolic root macerates of Euthamia graminifolia, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea, S. rugosa and S. virgaurea (Asteraceae). HPTLC on silica gel with n-hexane – isopropyl acetate – acetone 16:3:1; or (for preparative TLC) on TLC silica gel with n-hexane – acetone 7:3, followed by scraping the layer and eluting with ethanol. When intended for MS experiments, layers were previously washed with methanol – water 4:1 and heated 20 min at 100 °C. Derivatization with vanillin – sulfuric acid reagent. Multivariate image analysis of the derivatized chromatograms allowed clear separation of samples according to species. Effect-directed analysis for: A) enzymatic inhibition by immersion into acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase, glucosidase and amylase solutions; B) activity against Gram-negative bacteria using Xanthomonas euvesicatoria chromogenic bioassay, and Aliivibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas syringae maculicola bioluminescence assays; C) activity against Gram-positive bacteria with Bacillus subtilis spizizenii bioassay. Two labdane diterpenes (solidagenone, hRF 47, and presolidagenone, hRF 55) in S. canadensis and two polyacetylenes (matricaria-esters = methyl-decadiene-diynoates, hRF 78 and 87 in HPTLC) in S. virgaurea were identified from multipotent zones by bioassay-guided purification through preparative TLC / HPLC, followed by HRMS and NMR, as well as by HPTLC hyphenated to quadrupole-orbitrap HRMS in 2 ways: A) by eluting with methanol the compounds from the plate through the oval elution head of a TLC-MS interface, with heated electro-spray ionization (HESI, spray voltage 3.5 kV, capillary temperature 270 °C, nitrogen as sheath and auxiliary gas, full scan in negative and positive ionization modes in m/z range 50-750); tandem mass spectra were acquired in parallel at fragmentation energy of 15-100 eV; B) without eluent with a DART interface (Direct Analysis in Real-Time, needle voltage 4 kV, grid voltage 50 V, helium as gas, temperature 500 °C, full scan in positive ionization mode in m/z range 100-750).
J Chromatogr A, 1616, 461434 (2020). Samples were acetonic extracts of Malus domestica fruit peels (Rosaceae) and of Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare spice powders (Lamiaceae), as well as standards of maleic acid (dicarboxylic acid), carvacrol, thymol (phenolic monoterpenes), rosmanol (phenolic diterpene), betulinic acid, corosolic acid (CA), maslinic acid (MA), oleanolic acid (OA) and its isomer ursolic acid (UA) (triterpenes). HPTLC on silica gel, when intended for MS and NMR experiments, layers were prewashed twice with methanol – water 3:1, followed by 30 min drying at 120 °C. When intended for quantitative densitometry, start zones were submitted to prechromatographic derivatization with iodine solution (10 g/L in chloroform) allowed to migrate up to 12 mm, incubated 10 min at 27 °C and dried under cold air stream; this allowed separation of isomeric triterpenes. Separation with toluene – methanol – ethyl acetate 17:2:1 after 5 min chamber saturation at 50 % relative humidity. CA coeluted with MA, and OA with UA. Four hyphenations: A) Quantitative HPTLC densitometry for active analytes was performed by measuring absorption at 665 nm with a tungsten lamp after immersion of the chromatograms in anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent and heating 5 min at 110 °C. Linear range was obtained at 25 - 200 ng/band for OA and 100 - 400 ng/band for UA. B) Effect-directed analysis by immersing the chromatograms into Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis suspension for antibacterial activity and into acetyl-cholinesterase and tyrosinase solutions for enzymatic inhibition. C) Active bands were eluted with methanol through the oval elution head and in-line filter frit of a TLC-MS interface pump, into a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Full scan mass spectra (m/z 100−1000) in the positive and negative ionization modes were recorded using heated electrospray ionization (HESI, spray voltage 3.5 kV, capillary temperature 270 °C, probe heater temperature 200 °C). D) With higher amounts applied, preparative HPTLC, by scraping the multipotent band corresponding to OA and UA, and dissolving these analytes in methanol, for NMR analyses (1H raw or deconvoluted, and 2D 1H–13C Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence). Both isomers were distinguished by their allylic H-18 protons and separately quantified by applying PULCON method (PUlse Length-based CONcentration). LOQ was 267 μM for OA and 173 μM for UA; optimal range was 300 – 4600 mM, corresponding to 126 - 2090 μg of triterpenes.