Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS

Our CCBS database includes more than 11,000 abstracts of publications. Perform your own detailed search of TLC/HPTLC literature and find relevant information.

The Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service CCBS contains all abstracts of CBS issues beginning with CBS 51. The database is updated after the publication of every other CBS edition. Currently the Cumulative CAMAG Bibliography Service includes more than 11'000 abstracts of publications between 1983 and today. With the online version you can perform your own detailed TLC/HPTLC literature search:

  • Full text search: Enter a keyword, e.g. an author's name, a substance, a technique, a reagent or a term and see all related publications
  • Browse and search by CBS classification: Select one of the 38 CBS classification categories where you want to search by a keyword
  • Keyword register: select an initial character and browse associated keywords
  • Search by CBS edition: Select a CBS edition and find all related publications

Registered users can create a tailor made PDF of selected articles throughout CCBS search – simply use the cart icon on the right hand of each abstract to create your individual selection of abstracts. You can export your saved items to PDF by clicking the download icon.

      130 005
      Multiobjective optimization of microemulsion – thin layer chromatography with image processing as analytical platform for determination of drugs in plasma using desirability functions
      Noura H. ABOU-TALEB*, D. T. EL-SHERBINY, N. M. EL-ENANY, H. I. EL-SUBBAGH (*Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; nourahemdan@yahoo.com)

      J Chromatogr A, 1619, 460945 (2020). Samples were lamotrigin as standard, or extracted with an oil-in-water microemulsion (10 µL butyl acetate, 4 mL n-butanol, 925 mg sodium dodecyl sulphate, 8.6 mL water) either from patients’ raw plasma (for separation from blood proteins) after spiking, or from commercial tablets dissolved in methanol. TLC on silica gel with a water-in-oil microemulsion of 9 mL butyl acetate, 1 mL n-butanol, 250 mg sodium dodecyl sulphate, 250 µL water. Both optimal microemulsions were predicted using Taguchi orthogonal array and Plackett-Burman design. Evaluation in UV 254 nm, quantification from the digital picture using four image processing software programs. For lamotrigin (hRF 24), limits of quantification were 170 ng for pure drug and 10 ng for spiked plasma. Linearity (in range 20–200 ng/spot) was directly obtained for the calibration curve in spiked plasma; however, for pure drug, linearity was obtained only when using log values of the calculated densities (300–3000 ng/spot).

      Classification: 3a, 3d, 5c, 23e, 32c
      129 060
      Detection of low levels of genotoxic compounds in food contact materials using an alternative HPTLC-SOS-Umu-C assay
      D. MEYER, M. MARIN-KUAN, E. DEBON, P. SERRANT, C. COTTET-FONTANNAZ, B. SCHILTER, Gertrud E. MORLOCK*
      (*Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and TransMIT Center of Effect-Directed Analysis, Giessen, Germany; gertrud.morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 38(3), 387-397 (2021). Samples were standards of food contact contaminants with genotoxicity (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO), aflatoxin B1, hexachloroethane, nitroso-ethylurea, phenformin, PhIP) or negative controls (alosetron, mannitol), and extracts of coated tin cans (extracted with n-hexane – acetone at 25°C for 16 h or by heating at 60 °C with ethanol 95 % for 240 h). HPTLC on RP18W layer, pretreated to harden the binder by heating 1 h at 120 °C, prewashed with methanol and with ethyl acetate and dried 4 min in cold air stream after each development. Application areas were focused to their upper edges by a two-fold elution with ethyl acetate, followed by 1 min drying in cold air stream. Development with toluene – ethyl acetate 8:5, followed by 5 min drying, neutralization with citrate buffer (pH 12) and 4 min drying. Effect-directed analysis for genotoxicity (SOS response – UMU-C test, using NQO as positive control) by immersion (speed 3.5 cm/s, time 3 s) into Salmonella typhimurium suspension and, after 3 h incubation at 37 °C and 4 min drying in cold air stream, into one of two fluorogenic substrate solutions (methylumbelliferyl- vs. resorufin-galactopyranoside). After 1 h incubation at 37 °C, visualization of mutagenic compounds as (blue vs. red) fluorescent zones at FLD 366 nm, and densitometry performed with mercury lamp for fluorescence (at  366 / >400nm vs. 550 / >580 nm, respectively). Further validation experiments, including spiking extracts with NQO, were performed showing good mean reproducibility, no quenching or other matrix effects. Lowest effective concentration of NQO was 0.53 nM (20 pg/band), 176 times lower than in the corresponding microtiter plate assays.

      Classification: 4e, 5c, 8b, 16, 23d, 23e, 32d
      129 071
      Comparison of high-performance thin-layer with overpressured layer chromatography combined with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and direct bioautography for tansy root
      Ágnes M. MÓRICZ*, T.T. HÄBE, P.G. OTT, G.E. MORLOCK
      (*Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1022 Budapest, Hungary; moricz.agnes@atk.hu)

      J Chromatogr A, 1603, 355–360 (2019). Samples were ethyl acetate root macerates of fully flowered Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae). HPTLC on silica gel (classical irregular particles vs. Lichrosphere with spherical particles) previously washed with methanol, dried for 5 min at room temperature, perimeter-sealed with a polymer coat, and heated for 30 min at 100 °C. Separation with toluene or with toluene – n-hexane 7:3, in classical capillary flow or in OPLC (overpressured layer chromatography). For OPLC, off-line infusion was used (closed mobile phase (MP) outlet, automatically stopping development); external pressure 50 bar, rapid MP flush 175 and 350 µL, MP flow rate 250 and 500 µL/min, 1830 and 3475 µL MP, development time 446 s and 424 s. Derivatization by immersion into vanillin – sulfuric acid reagent, followed by 5 min heating at 110 °C; or into PABA reagent (500 mg p-aminobenzoic acid, 18 mL glacial acetic acid diluted, 20 mL water, 1 mL o-phosphoric acid, 60 mL acetone), followed by 5 min heating at 140 °C. Effect-directed analysis using automated immersion: A) for free radical (DPPH•) scavengers; B) for activity against Gram-negative bacteria using Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay; C) for activity against Gram-positive bacteria with Bacillus subtilis bioassay. Four active polyynes were identified as hexadiynylidene-epoxy-dioxaspiro-decane (1), pontica epoxyde (nonene-triynyl-vinyl-oxirane) (2), tetradeca-triine-en-one (3) and trans-(hexadiynylidene)-dioxaspiro-decene (4), by hyphenating OPLC to quadrupole-orbitrap HRMS without eluent, using a DART interface (Direct Analysis in Real-Time, needle voltage 4kV, grid voltage 50 V, helium as gas, temperature 500 °C, full scan in positive ionization mode in m/z range 100-750). Polyynes (3) and (4) were coeluting in HPTLC but not in OPLC, demonstrating that (4) is not produced by oxidation during the DART-MS procedure. Separation with OPLC compared to HPTLC was performed in a shorter time and with better resolution at the same time. Layers with spherical particles gave higher resolution; zone distortions occurring in OPLC due to dissolved air in MP were prevented by previous MP sonication.

      Classification: 3b, 3d, 4e, 5a, 8b, 9, 32e
      127 016
      Using the HPTLC-bioluminescence bacteria assay for the determination of acute toxicities in marine sediments and its eligibility as a monitoring assessment tool
      Anna LOGEMANN*, M. SCHAFBERG, B. BROCKMEYER (*Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 78, 20359, Hamburg, Germany, anna.logemann@bsh.de)

      Chemosphere. 233, 936-945 (2019). HPTLC of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine sediments on silica gel with n-hexane - dichloromethane - toluene 14:5:1. Qualitative identification using the wavelengths 190-310  nm. Toxicological potential of the sediment samples was determined by the intrinsic fluorescence of Aliivibrio fischeri by dipping into the bacteria solution and analysis with a BioLuminizer. 

      Classification: 5d
      127 028
      Estrogenic activity of food contact materials—evaluation of 20 chemicals using a yeast estrogen screen on HPTLC or 96-well plates
      A. J. BERGMANN*, E. SIMON, A. SCHIFFERLI, A. SCHOENBORN, E. VERMEIRSSEN (*Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland, alanjames.bergmann@oekotoxzentrum.ch)

      Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 412, 4527-4536 (2020). HPTLC of 20 chemicals representative of migrants from plastic food contact materials on silica gel with chloroform - acetone - petroleum ether 11:5:5. Yeast estrogen screen was performed by spraying with yeast culture, followed by incubation at 30 ºC for 3 h. Detection by spraying with the indicator (2 mL 0.5 mg/mL 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-galactopyranoside-MUG in lacZ buffer), followed by incubation at 37 ºC for 20 min. Qualitative identification under UV light at 366 and 550 nm. The method was more sensitive than a microtiter plate YES (lyticase-YES). 

      Classification: 5b, 7
      127 005
      Utilization of a crown ether/amine‐type rotaxane as a probe for the versatile detection of anions and acids by Thin‐Layer Chromatography.
      S. MIYAGAWA, M. KIMURA, S. KAGAMI, T. KAWASAKI, Y. TOKUNAGA* (*Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Fukui, Bunkyo, Fukui, Japan; tokunaga@u-fukui.ac.jp)

      Chem. Asian J. 15(19), 3044-3049 (2020). The studied rotaxane combines a dibenzocrown of 8 ethers (DB24C8) with an axle chain (Ax) containing two amines, one of them in an aniline group, allowing stability of the rotaxane even when the other one is unprotonated. TLC on silica gel in 4 steps, with detection under UV light or after derivatization with phosphomolybdic acid in ethanol. (1) Before the synthesis of the rotaxane, unprotonated Ax was isolated by preparative TLC of the protonated Ax obtained by addition of HCl or toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH); the mobile phases were chloroform – methanol 10:1 and toluene – tetrahydrofurane 3:2, respectively. The isolated molecules were confirmed as totally unprotonated Ax by NMR, suggesting a complete loss of HCl and TsOH on the silica gel layer. (2) After synthesis, unprotonated rotaxane, pure vs. monoprotonated by the addition of 10 different acids (and purified by column chromatography CC), was applied on TLC plates and developed with dichloromethane – acetone – water 3:16:1; the hRF values were very different, depending on the counter-anions from the used acids. (3) The same behavior (except with sulfuric acid) was observed under the same conditions when CC was omitted (unprotonated rotaxane samples were mixed with each of the acids, or with two acids at the same time for acid-competitive TLC analysis). (4) When unprotonated rotaxane was applied under the same conditions as in step (3) with the sodium salts instead of the acids, the behavior was similar (except for the shapes of the spots, due to the salts in excess). The rotaxane can thus be used for the TLC separation and detection of sodium salts, by forming salts of protonated rotaxane with the anion afforded by these sodium salts. The rotaxane protonation seems to be promoted by the methanol of the spotting mixture; indeed, when step (3) was performed with the mobile phase chloroform – methanol 10:1, a second zone appeared because methanol formed a salt with the rotaxane (identified by NMR).

      Classification: 4e, 5a, 5b, 17a
      127 005
      Utilization of a crown ether/amine‐type rotaxane as a probe for the versatile detection of anions and acids by Thin‐Layer Chromatography.
      S. MIYAGAWA, M. KIMURA, S. KAGAMI, T. KAWASAKI, Y. TOKUNAGA* (*Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Fukui, Bunkyo, Fukui, Japan; tokunaga@u-fukui.ac.jp)

      Chem. Asian J. 15(19), 3044-3049 (2020). The studied rotaxane combines a dibenzocrown of 8 ethers (DB24C8) with an axle chain (Ax) containing two amines, one of them in an aniline group, allowing stability of the rotaxane even when the other one is unprotonated. TLC on silica gel in 4 steps, with detection under UV light or after derivatization with phosphomolybdic acid in ethanol. (1) Before the synthesis of the rotaxane, unprotonated Ax was isolated by preparative TLC of the protonated Ax obtained by addition of HCl or toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH); the mobile phases were chloroform – methanol 10:1 and toluene – tetrahydrofurane 3:2, respectively. The isolated molecules were confirmed as totally unprotonated Ax by NMR, suggesting a complete loss of HCl and TsOH on the silica gel layer. (2) After synthesis, unprotonated rotaxane, pure vs. monoprotonated by the addition of 10 different acids (and purified by column chromatography CC), was applied on TLC plates and developed with dichloromethane – acetone – water 3:16:1; the hRF values were very different, depending on the counter-anions from the used acids. (3) The same behavior (except with sulfuric acid) was observed under the same conditions when CC was omitted (unprotonated rotaxane samples were mixed with each of the acids, or with two acids at the same time for acid-competitive TLC analysis). (4) When unprotonated rotaxane was applied under the same conditions as in step (3) with the sodium salts instead of the acids, the behavior was similar (except for the shapes of the spots, due to the salts in excess). The rotaxane can thus be used for the TLC separation and detection of sodium salts, by forming salts of protonated rotaxane with the anion afforded by these sodium salts. The rotaxane protonation seems to be promoted by the methanol of the spotting mixture; indeed, when step (3) was performed with the mobile phase chloroform – methanol 10:1, a second zone appeared because methanol formed a salt with the rotaxane (identified by NMR).

      Classification: 4e, 5a, 5b, 17a
      124 055
      Direct bioautography hyphenated to direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry: Chromatographic separation, bioassay and mass spectra, all in the same sample run
      T.T. HÄBE, M. JAMSHIDI-AIDJI, J. MACHO, Gertrud E. MORLOCK* (*Chair of Food Science, Institute of Nutritional Science, Interdisciplinary Research Center (IFZ), Justus Liebig Univ. Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392, Giessen, Germany, Gertrud.Morlock@uni-giessen.de)

      J. of Chromatogr. A 1568, 188-196 (2018). Mass spectra by DART-MS were recorded directly in situ the bioautogram, immediately after direct bioautography (DB). This allowed to detect bioactive analytes within the bioautogram and discriminate microorganism cells and polar bioassay medium ingredients which could otherwise stress the MS system. DB-DART-MS was used for bioactive compounds in cosmetics using the Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri bioassays for detection of Gram-positive and Gram-negative antimicrobials. Planar yeast estrogen screen was used for detection of estrogen-effective compounds. HPTLC-DART-MS of parabens in hand creams either on silica gel with petroleum ether - glacial acetic acid 20:3 or on RP-18W with methanol - water 1:1. Detection under UV 254 and 366 nm. Bioassay by immersing the neutralized chromatograms into the bacterial suspensions.

      Keywords: densitometry HPTLC
      Classification: 4e, 5b